A physical, genetic and functional sequence assembly of the barley genome.

Nature. 2012 Oct 17. doi: 10.1038/nature11543.

Added on : 30 October 2012

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The International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium; Principal investigators, Mayer KF, Waugh R, Langridge P, Close TJ, Wise RP, Graner A, Matsumoto T, Sato K, Schulman A, Muehlbauer GJ, Stein N; Physical map construction and direct anchoring, Ariyadasa R, Schulte D, Poursarebani N, Zhou R, Steuernagel B, Mascher M, Scholz U, Shi B, Langridge P, Madishetty K, Svensson JT, Bhat P, Moscou M, Resnik J, Close TJ, Muehlbauer GJ, Hedley P, Liu H, Morris J, Waugh R, Frenkel Z, Korol A, Bergès H, Graner A, Stein N; Genomic sequencing and assembly, Steuernagel B, Scholz U, Taudien S, Felder M, Groth M, Platzer M, Stein N; BAC sequencing and assembly, Steuernagel B, Scholz U, Himmelbach A, Taudien S, Felder M, Platzer M, Lonardi S, Duma D, Alpert M, Cordero F, Beccuti M, Ciardo G, Ma Y, Wanamaker S, Close TJ, Stein N; BAC-end sequencing, Cattonaro F, Vendramin V, Scalabrin S, Radovic S, Wing R, Schulte D, Steuernagel B, Morgante M, Stein N, Waugh R; Integration of physical/genetic map and sequence resources, Nussbaumer T, Gundlach H, Martis M, Ariyadasa R, Poursarebani N, Steuernagel B, Scholz U, Wise RP, Poland J, Stein N, Mayer KF; Gene annotation, Spannagl M, Pfeifer M, Gundlach H, Mayer KF; Repetitive DNA analysis, Gundlach H, Moisy C, Tanskanen J, Scalabrin S, Zuccolo A, Vendramin V, Morgante M, Mayer KF, Schulman A; Transcriptome sequencing and analysis, Pfeifer M, Spannagl M, Hedley P, Morris J, Russell J, Druka A, Marshall D, Bayer M, Swarbreck D, Sampath D, Ayling S, Febrer M, Caccamo M, Matsumoto T, Tanaka T, Sato K, Wise RP, Close TJ, Wannamaker S, Muehlbauer GJ, Stein N, Mayer KF, Waugh R; Re-sequencing and diversity analysis, Steuernagel B, Schmutzer T, Mascher M, Scholz U, Taudien S, Platzer M, Sato K, Marshall D, Bayer M, Waugh R, Stein N; Writing and editing of the manuscript, Mayer KF, Waugh R, Brown JW, Schulman A, Langridge P, Platzer M, Fincher GB, Muehlbauer GJ, Sato K, Close TJ, Wise RP, Stein N.

Nature. 2012 Oct 17. doi: 10.1038/nature11543.


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is among the world's earliest domesticated and most important crop plants. It is diploid with a large haploid genome of 5.1 gigabases (Gb). Here we present an integrated and ordered physical, genetic and functional sequence resource that describes the barley gene-space in a structured whole-genome context. We developed a physical map of 4.98 Gb, with more than 3.90 Gb anchored to a high-resolution genetic map. Projecting a deep whole-genome shotgun assembly, complementary DNA and deep RNA sequence data onto this framework supports 79,379 transcript clusters, including 26,159 'high-confidence' genes with homology support from other plant genomes. Abundant alternative splicing, premature termination codons and novel transcriptionally active regions suggest that post-transcriptional processing forms an important regulatory layer. Survey sequences from diverse accessions reveal a landscape of extensive single-nucleotide variation. Our data provide a platform for both genome-assisted research and enabling contemporary crop improvement.

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