2016 publications

Extraction of high-molecular-weight genomic DNA for long-read sequencing of single molecules

Biotechniques. 2016 Oct 1;61(4):203-205.

Added on : 03 March 2017

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Authors

Mayjonade B, Gouzy J, Donnadieu C, Pouilly N, Marande W, Callot C, Langlade N, Muños S.

Biotechniques. 2016 Oct 1;61(4):203-205.

Abstract

De novo sequencing of complex genomes is one of the main challenges for researchers seeking high-quality reference sequences. Many de novo assemblies are based on short reads, producing fragmented genome sequences. Third-generation sequencing, with read lengths >10 kb, will improve the assembly of complex genomes, but these techniques require high-molecular-weight genomic DNA (gDNA), and gDNA extraction protocols used for obtaining smaller fragments for short-read sequencing are not suitable for this purpose. Methods of preparing gDNA for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries could be adapted, but these approaches are time-consuming, and commercial kits for these methods are expensive. Here, we present a protocol for rapid, inexpensive extraction of high-molecular-weight gDNA from bacteria, plants, and animals. Our technique was validated using sunflower leaf samples, producing a mean read length of 12.6 kb and a maximum read length of 80 kb.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27712583


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Authors :

Roselli S, Olry A, Vautrin S, Coriton O, Ritchie D, Galati G, Navrot N, Krieger C, Vialart G, Bergès H, Bourgaud F, Hehn A. (2016)

Plant J. doi: 10.1111/tpj.13450

Abstract :

Furanocoumarins are specialized metabolites that are involved in the defense of plants against phytophagous insects. The molecular and functional characterization of the genes involved in their biosynthetic pathway is only partially complete. Many recent reports have described gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites in plants. To investigate possible co-localization of the genes involved in the furanocoumarin pathway, we sequenced parsnip BAC clones spanning two different gene loci. We found that two genes previously identified in this pathway, CYP71AJ3 and CYP71AJ4, were located on the same BAC, whereas a third gene, PsPT1, belonged to a different BAC clone. Chromosome mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that PsPT1 and the CYP71AJ3-CYP71AJ4 clusters are located on two different chromosomes. Sequencing the BAC clone harboring PsPT1 led to the identification of a gene encoding an Fe(II) α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (PsDIOX) situated in the neighborhood of PsPT1 and confirmed the occurrence of a second gene cluster involved in the furanocoumarin pathway. This enzyme metabolizes p-coumaroyl CoA, leading exclusively to the synthesis of umbelliferone, an important intermediate compound in furanocoumarin synthesis. This work provides an insight into the genomic organization of genes from the furanocoumarin biosynthesis pathway organized in more than one gene cluster. It also confirms that the screening of a genomic library and the sequencing of BAC clones represent a valuable tool to identify genes involved in biosynthetic pathways dedicated to specialized metabolite synthesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Long Read Sequencing Technology to Solve Complex Genomic Regions Assembly in Plants.

Journal of Next Generation Sequencing & Applications.

Added on : 25 August 2016

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Authors :

Arnaud Bellec, Audrey Courtial, Stephane Cauet, Nathalie Rodde, Sonia Vautrin, Genseric Beydon, Nadege Arnal, Nadine Gautier, Joelle Fourment, Elisa Prat, William Marande, Yves Barriere and Helene Berges.

Journal of Next Generation Sequencing & Applications.

Abstract :

Background:
Numerous completed or on-going whole genome sequencing projects have highlighted the fact that obtaining a high quality genome sequence is necessary to address comparative genomics questions such as structural variations among genotypes and gain or loss of specific function. Despite the spectacular progress that has been made in sequencing technologies, obtaining accurate and reliable data is still a challenge, both at the whole genome scale and when targeting specific genomic regions. These problems are even more noticeable for complex plant genomes. Most plant genomes are known to be particularly challenging due to their size, high density of repetitive elements and various levels of ploidy. To overcome these problems, we have developed a strategy to reduce genome complexity by using the large insert BAC libraries combined with next generation sequencing technologies.

Results:
We compared two different technologies (Roche-454 and Pacific Biosciences PacBio RS II) to sequence pools of BAC clones in order to obtain the best quality sequence. We targeted nine BAC clones from different species (maize, wheat, strawberry, barley, sugarcane and sunflower) known to be complex in terms of sequence assembly. We sequenced the pools of the nine BAC clones with both technologies. We compared assembly results and highlighted differences due to the sequencing technologies used.

Conclusions:
We demonstrated that the long reads obtained with the PacBio RS II technology serve to obtain a better and more reliable assembly, notably by preventing errors due to duplicated or repetitive sequences in the same region.

Link :

http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/long-read-sequencing-technology-to-solve-complex-genomic-regionsassembly-in-plants-2469-9853-1000128.pdf


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Authors :

Hen-Avivi S, Savin O, Racovita R, Lee WS, Adamki N, Malitsky S, Almekias-Siegl E, Levy M, Vautrin S, Bergès H, Friedlander G, Kartvelishvily E, Ben-Zvi G, Alkan N, Uauy C, Kanyuka K, Jetter R, Distelfeld A, Aharoni A.

Plant Cell. 2016 May 25. pii: tpc.00197.2016.

Abstract :

The glaucous appearance of wheat and barley plants, that is the light bluish-grey look of flag leaf, stem, and spike surfaces, results from deposition of cuticular β-diketone wax on their surfaces; this phenotype is associated with high yield, especially under drought conditions. Despite extensive genetic and biochemical characterization, the molecular genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of β-diketones remains unclear. Here we discovered that the wheat W1 locus contains a metabolic gene cluster mediating β-diketone biosynthesis. The cluster comprises genes encoding proteins of several families including type-III polyketide synthases, hydrolases, and cytochrome P450s related to known fatty acid hydroxylases. The cluster region was identified in both genetic and physical maps of glaucous and glossy tetraploid wheat, demonstrating entirely different haplotypes in these accessions. Complementary evidence obtained through gene silencing in planta and heterologous expression in bacteria supports a model for a β-diketone biosynthesis pathway involving members of these three protein families. Mutations in homologous genes were identified in the barley eceriferum mutants defective in β-diketone biosynthesis, demonstrating a gene cluster also in the β-diketone biosynthesis Cer-cqu locus in barley. Hence, our findings open new opportunities to breed major cereal crops for surface features that impact yield and stress response.

Link : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225753


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Authors :

Schweiger W, Steiner B, Vautrin S, Nussbaumer T, Siegwart G, Zamini M, Jungreithmeier F, Gratl V, Lemmens M, Mayer KF, Bergès H, Adam G, Buerstmayr H.

Theor Appl Genet. 2016 DOI: 10.1007/s00122-016-2727-x.

Abstract :

Fine mapping and sequencing revealed 28 genes in the non-recombining haplotype containing Fhb1 . Of these, only a GDSL lipase gene shows a pathogen-dependent expression pattern. Fhb1 is a prominent Fusarium head blight resistance locus of wheat, which has been successfully introgressed in adapted breeding material, where it confers a significant increase in overall resistance to the causal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the fungal virulence factor and mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. The Fhb1 region has been resolved for the susceptible wheat reference genotype Chinese Spring, yet the causal gene itself has not been identified in resistant cultivars. Here, we report the establishment of a 1 Mb contig embracing Fhb1 in the donor line CM-82036. Sequencing revealed that the region of Fhb1 deviates from the Chinese Spring reference in DNA size and gene content, which explains the repressed recombination at the locus in the performed fine mapping. Differences in genes expression between near-isogenic lines segregating for Fhb1 challenged with F. graminearum or treated with mock were investigated in a time-course experiment by RNA sequencing. Several candidate genes were identified, including a pathogen-responsive GDSL lipase absent in susceptible lines. The sequence of the Fhb1 region, the resulting list of candidate genes, and near-diagnostic KASP markers for Fhb1 constitute a valuable resource for breeding and further studies aiming to identify the gene(s) responsible for F. graminearum and deoxynivalenol resistance.

Link : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27174222

Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes.

Front Plant Sci. 2016 Apr 22;7:510. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00510

Added on : 10 May 2016

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Authors :

Ribeiro T, Barrela RM, Bergès H, Marques C, Loureiro J, Morais-Cecílio L, Paiva JA.

Front Plant Sci. 2016 Apr 22;7:510. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00510

Abstract :

The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus.


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Authors :

Schneider LM, Adamski NM, Christensen CE, Stuart DB, Vautrin S, Hansson M, Uauy C, von Wettstein-Knowles P.

J Exp Bot. 2016 Mar 9. pii: erw105.

Abstract :

Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing identification of mutants in their synthesis or transport. The present study discloses three such Eceriferum (cer) genes in barley - Cer-c, Cer-q and Cer-u - known to be tightly linked and functioning in a biochemical pathway forming dominating amounts of β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones plus some esterified alkan-2-ols. These aliphatics are present in many Triticeae as well as dicotyledons such as Eucalyptus and Dianthus. Recently developed genomic resources and mapping populations in barley defined these genes to a small region on chromosome arm 2HS. Exploiting Cer-c and -u potential functions pinpointed five candidates, of which three were missing in apparent cer-cqu triple mutants. Sequencing more than 50 independent mutants for each gene confirmed their identification. Cer-c is a chalcone synthase-like polyketide synthase, designated diketone synthase (DKS), Cer-q is a lipase/carboxyl transferase and Cer-u is a P450 enzyme. All were highly expressed in pertinent leaf sheath tissue of wild type. A physical map revealed the order Cer-c, Cer-u, Cer-q with the flanking genes 101kb apart, confirming they are a gene cluster, Cer-cqu. Homology-based modeling suggests that many of the mutant alleles affect overall protein structure or specific active site residues. The rich diversity of identified mutations will facilitate future studies of three key enzymes involved in synthesis of plant apoplast waxes.